Category Archives: Food industry

Homogenization of Honey

homogenized

Homogenized. Homogenization of honey is a process of thorough mixing of its entire volume before pouring it into jars. Prior to the process, the honey is heated to 40C in a container equipped with special mixers and a heater.

Homogenization of honey is usually beneficial both to producers and to consumers, as it converts honey, the viscous material that resists shear flow, into fluid and ensures its uniform thickness.

Homogenization of HoneyGlobeCore food homogenizers increase the uniformity of honey by creating small and uniform crystals of the substance.

Advantages of homogenized honey:

  • Does not harden, making packing easier;
  • Has improved organoleptic properties.

A homogenizer allows the producer to regulate the temperature of honey, and to select honey treatment.

Benefits of GlobeCore honey homogenizers:

  • Easy to operate and maintain;
  • Increased stability of honey, while preserving flavor
  • Absence of foam;
  • Crystallized honey in a stable structure;
  • High hygienic standards.

GlobeCore honey homogenizers also mix several varieties of honey and can produce the so-called cream-honey.

For advice on this equipment and to order use the tab “Contact”.

Dispersion in the food industry

One of the most important characteristics of the emulsion is its stability. The stability is measured by the time until the emulsion separates. A popular method to achieve a stable product in the food industry is dispersion by simple mechanical agitation using a stirrer (turbine mixer, screw mixers, blade mixer, mill, anchor stirrer, gate mixer, etc.).

Dispersing and emulsifying is also performed by valve, vacuum, centrifugal, rotary and ultrasonic homogenizers. Statistically, the most commonly used are valve homogenizers. The principle of their operation is high pressure (8-25 MPa) generated in a small gap between the valve and the valve seat. The drawback of such devices is the rapid wear of valves and seals when producing fine dispersions (particle size of 1-1.8 microns). Also, valve homogenizers are energy-intensive and are difficult to service.

Rotary devices are easier and less energy-intensive. But they too have their disadvantages. Their main disadvantage is foaming of the product during processing.

The rotary-pulsating devices operate on the principle of the intervals in the product flow in the rotor-stator system. It causes cavitation, hydrodynamic shocks and turbulence, which provide dispersion.

Among these homogenizers, a special place belongs to the colloid mills. They are fine grinding devices and can simultaneously disperse and homogenize the material. The treated mixture is passed through the gap between the rotor and the stator.

GlobeCore produces KLM colloid mills, intended for production of highly stable colloidal solutions, extremely fine suspensions, mixtures and emulsions. Additionally, a complex geometric surface of the rotor creates a greater turbulence which breaks the particles of the product.

Under the a centrifugal force and high relative speed between the rotating rotor and the stationary stator, the liquid and semi-liquid materials become uniform, finely divided and homogeneous mixtures and emulsions.

The heating jacket supplies or removes heat in the grinding zone.

Ultrasonic Homogenizer for Production of Sour Milk Products

Ultrasonic Homogenizer

Balanced nutrition is impossible without fermented dairy products. They are especially important for the elderly people and for recovering patients. Dairy products improves metabolism and digestion.

One of the most important stages of making sour milk products is the mechanical processing of the raw materials in the process of homogenization. The main purpose of this process is to prevent separation of fat for better product quality. Homogenization improves consistency and taste, digestion of the product by the human body and allows to fully utilize all vitamins and other nutrients.

At present stage, dispersion of milk is performed by rotary and valve homogenizers, as well as devices based on electrohydraulic and ultrasonic processes.

An ultrasonic homogenizer is an electrical, mechanical and hydrodynamic device, designed to create sonic and ultrasonic waves in the processed medium. The best known device of this type is the so called hydrodynamic whistle. In this device, the liquid flows through an area of maximum ultrasonic influence, created by the flow itself. The flow is divided into many smaller jets, which intertwine and create intensive turbulence and high frequency waves.

In practice, the ultrasonic method of emulsification has shown high efficiency. The process can achieve emulsification up to 95%, with particle size as low as 0.1 – 0.5 micron. The emulsion demonstrates high stability in long term storage.

Biscuit and Cookie Production

Biscuit and Cookie Production

In the production of pastry, the most promising direction is implementation of modern technology and equipment and improvement of the product range by using new flavors, alternative raw materials and new packaging materials.

The main component of pastry, which significantly defines the quality of the dough is flour. Most of such products require flour with medium or weak extensible gluten in the amount of at least 28%.

The grade of flour milling also plays an important role, since the rate of dough formation depends on particle size. The larger the particles, the slower the swelling and formation of gluten, the dough remains elastic.

If the size of the particles is smaller, and the mean surface is larger, the ability of the flour to absorb water grows sharply, the dough becomes viscous and elastic.

The dispersion of fat also influences the product. In dispersed emulsion, which is added to the dough, the droplets of fat are very small. This forms a good structure of the product. If the fat coagulates into larger droplets, it does not envelop flour particles, cannot stay within the product and precipitates in storage. This process is characteristic of, for instance, vegetable oil. Solid fat with high melting point is viscous and distributes poorly between flow particles.

In the process of pastry production, it is very important that all components, especially fat, are evenly distributed throughout the dough. Such production involves mutually insoluble products (milk, water and fat). Dosage of the mix with one portioning device is only possible if the material is a stable emulsion without separation.

To obtain such an emulsion from two insoluble liquids, the system requires the third component, an emulsifier, which reduces the interfacial tension on the phase boundary and envelops the particles with a thin film to prevent coagulation.

The stability of emulsion depends on the type and concentration of emulsion, as well as fat dispersion: the higher the dispersion, the higher the stability of the emulsion, all other factors being equal.

A common choice for emulsifier are edible phosphatide concentrates and surfactants.

Surfactants can adjust flour properties, weaken or strengthen gluten and intensify the technology process.

Using emulsion facilitates even distribution of the dispersed fat in the dough and creates favorable conditions to make the most elastic dough for easy molding. Biscuits made with an emulsion is easy to form, absorbs moisture well, is more porous and brittle.

The process of dough preparation can be divided into two stages: obtaining the emulsion and making the dough with the emulsion. Emulsion may be made using a CLM colloid mill. The finished emulsion is pumped into an intermediary tank, equipped with a mechanical agitator and a heat exchange jacket. The time of emulsion preparation depends on the recipe and varies from 10 to 20 minutes.

To improve emulsion stability and to slow the process of staling of the product, it is recommended to add 0.5% fat. The addition of fat into the dough may be reduced by 1.5%.

Milk homogenizer: What is the Price of a High Quality Device

Milk homogenizer. One of the important processes in dairy production is mil homogenization. Homogenized milk has many advantages compared to non-homogenized. In particular, the taste and ‘feel’ of the milk improve, as well as storage and transportation stability, no traces of fat in milk containers.

The quality of the products made from homogenized milk is much higher. That is why homogenization became a must in most processes to make milk, dairy products, ice-cream, cheese etc.

Due to the development of homogenized component technology, the requirements to product dispersion are high. The main problem of making fine emulsions are the limited capabilities of homogenizers. Development of devices and methods to make finely dispersed emulsion with the ability to adjust dispersion and with high capacity, is rather important.

To homogenize milk and dairy products, valve homogenizers are mostly used. But analysis of valve homogenizer designs shows that there are significant flaws: large size and weight, high material and energy costs, rapid wear of the valve and a high price tag. Other types of homogenizers either fail to achieve the required degree of fat dispersion, or have significant disadvantages in use.

GlobeCore offers food production businesses homogenizers for milk processing with improved characteristics. We can manufacture a device based on your individual specifications for your production line. If necessary, GlobeCore specialists will visit the site, set up the production line and commission it. The “homogenizer prices” issue will be a thing in the past after you see our homogenizers in action!

Industrial food line mixers-dispersers

Homogenization (mixing and making homogeneous emulsions) and dispersion (creating water or other emulsions) – are the most commonly used processes in the food industry, along with thermal treatment. Most of dairy or high-fat products, sauces, ketchups, concentrates, etc. are obtained by processing components in line mixers-dispersers (colloid mills)

Food industry favors continuous production lines. This is due to a limited shelf life of raw materials, packaging automation and constant consumption of products.

  • Continuous  mixing takes place in colloid mills, food dispersers-homogenizers, fitted into a production line.
  • Maintaining a desired temperature (from +30 to +180°C), ie fitting the equipment with temperature sensors and cooling or heating systems (thermal jackets) is an important condition for operation.
  • Homogenization to particle size from 1 micron is often required.
  • Food mixers-dispersers must meet all sanitary standards.

Structural elements of a food dispersants

  • High-speed electric drive (3000 rpm.);
  • Cavitational colloid mill made from stainless steel;
  • Inlet and outlet pipe systems (with additional pumps as gomogenizators are usually not self-priming);
  • Electronic control unit;
  • Thermal jacket;
  • Sound proofing (if necessary)

Advantages of this colloid mill

Compared to batch units (turbine stirrer), food line dispersers-mixers have a number of advantages:

  • High capacity (up to 20 m3 / h);
  • High efficiency (fine dispersion and homogeneity of obtained emulsions);
  • Adjustment of the gap between rotor and stator (without dismantling the equipment) to vary the size of droplets in a suspension;
  • Cavity (air and liquid bubbles) splitting in the dispersion process results in emulsion that does not separate;
  • No need for additional mixing containers – the process is integrated into the production line;
  • Closed chamber eliminates the ingress of foreign matter or contaminants.

Industrial line mixers dispersers

Line mixers-dispersers are used in industrial production of bitumen emulsions for waterproofing.

What is a disperser?

A disperser is a continuous colloid mill. In this mill, bitumen emulsion is prepared in a rotor-stator mixer with a gap 0.2-0.6 mm between the moving part and the housing. The rotor breaks and tears particles and droplets of bitumen and evenly distributes them in aqueous emulsifier solution.

There are also plunger dispersers, but rotary dispersers are simpler in design and are more durable.

Structural elements of the disperser:

  • heated tank for bitumen;
  • water dispenser connected to pipe or tank;
  • emulsifier dispensers for bitumen emulsion (bitumen mill);
  • probe to measure pH;
  • feed pumps;
  • mixer-homogenizer;
  • output pipe or tank for storage of bitumen emulsion.

How does a disperser colloid mill work?

Bitumen is continuously heated to operating temperature (80°C and higher) in a tank by a bitumen heater, and water is heated to 60-80 ° C. Further:

  • to dispersing chamber:

– where a chemical reaction takes place between fatty acid and alkali or hydrochloric acid (parts of anionic or cationic emulsifiers);

– the resulting reagents immediately dissolve in water;

  • mixer-homogenizer breaks bitumen into droplets to form the water phase which is stabilized by the emulsifier;
  • The mixture is pumped into a tank, it is cooled and poured into transport containers. Due to heat exchangers, the generated heat is sent to heat water.

The formula for bitumen emulsion depends on future application and the type of bitumen used. Emulsion component percentages are: 50-60% bitumen, 1-3% emulsifier and the rest is water. Different types of bitumen emulsion are used for road, construction, roofing, waterproofing of foundation and building blocks. Also, bitumen emulsions are divided according to speed of evaporation and separation of water – 5, 10 minutes and more than 10 minutes.

Advantages of continuous industrial dispersers:

  • automation and remote control, no harmful effects of chemicals;
  • mass production of emulsions and implementation of quick changeover to a different type;
  • increased productivity compared to batch units;
  • low operating costs of bitumen mill.

Food homogenizer

Food homogenizer

GlobeCore homogenizers are widely used in food industry. They offer efficiency, reliability as well as easy maintenance and adjustment, and the ability to quickly integrate into existing production lines at affordable price.

GlobeCore homogenizers are designed for making homogeneous multicomponent mixtures by crushing dispersed phase into particles 1 micron size and by mixing of the components. Mixing and blending of solids in a device occurs with the help of intensive turbulence and cavitation processes in the space between a stator and a rotating rotor fitted with numerous protrusions with complex geometric microrelief. The finished product is an emulsion (liquid in liquid) or a fine suspension with a solid content volume up to 6%. Milling quality is adjusted by changing the gap between the rotor and the stator and by selecting the number of processing cycles.

In food industry GlobeCore equipment is used for processing dairy products, fats, starches, production of mayonnaise, fruit purees, jams, juices, concentrates, flavorings and other products. The product is a highly dispersed emulsion from viscous liquid food products that has a completely stable structure and is uniform in taste, color and consistency. During transportation and storage, such emulsions do not separate and do not settle, and fully preserve the original organoleptic properties and appetizing appearance.

Efficiency and cost effectiveness of GlobeCore homogenizers in the dairy, oil and fat, confectionery and canned food industries are due to:

  • improve quality of food products;
  • extend shelf life of prepared products;
  • decreased amount of emulsifiers, stabilizers and other additives required.

GlobeCore equipment and its components are made from high quality materials and meet all hygienic and sanitary requirements of the food industry.

Mayonnaise Production Technology

There is a legend about the origin of mayonnaise. It says that this sauce was invented by a chef of the French garrison, which was locked by the British on the island of Menorca in the city Mahon (Mayon). The besieged experienced problems with food – there were only olive oil and turkey eggs, and the officers were only fed on fried eggs. Then the French commandant’s personal chef – thoroughly grated egg yolks with sugar and salt, mixed it all with olive oil, and finally, added lemon juice into the mixture. Thus, the classic mayonnaise was created. This wonderful sauce quickly gained its recognition and became known as “mahon sauce” or “mayonnaise”.

However, the Spaniards insist on their authorship, arguing that the treacherous French usurped the glory of their “ali-oli” sauce, popular in South Europe since Virgil.

In the early 19th century a French chef made mayonnaise with mustard, which gave it a delicious and piquant taste. Besides, mustard, being an excellent emulsifier, it improved the sauce durability in a long-term storage. This kind of mustard sauce got the name “Provencal sauce from Mahon” or more familiar to us name – “Provence” mayonnaise.

Today there are many recipes of mayonnaise with different proportions of ingredients, but the determining factor of this product is the fat content. According to European standards, with regard to the fat content, the product is referred to as “mayonnaise” (at 80% of fat), “salad mayonnaise” (at 70-50% of fat) and salad dressing (at 49-20% of fat).

Using the language of the food industry technologists, we can describe mayonnaise as “oil in water” fine emulsion, prepared from egg powder, milk powder, mustard powder and vegetable oil with the addition of emulsifiers, flavorings and spices. Thus, the main task of a technologist in this regard – is to obtain a homogeneous, stable substance, taking into account the concentration of the dry components and the degree of their swelling – by adjusting the flow of the oil, and the level of mechanical and hydro-mechanical equipment.

A mayonnaise production line consists of several compulsory sets: a section of components resting, tanks for steam treatment, the main mixer tank, and a homogenizer or colloid mill.

To obtain a high-quality product, the raw materials have to meet certain requirements. For example, vegetable oil (sunflower, soya, olive, corn, peanut, and others), serving as one of the main components, must pass through a refining process, including deodorization, and used within a period of one month since refining.

The following ingredients are used in dry form: egg powder, powdered cow’s milk (skimmed or whole), mustard powder, sugar, and salt. Vinegar is used in the form of a 9-10% solution of acetic acid.

The preparation of  mayonnaise consists of a series of steps: first, you prepare the ingredients according to the recipe. The dry ingredients: egg and mustard powder, powdered milk, sugar, salt, soda are weighed on the scales, and then sifted through a fine-meshed sieve. Sifting through a sieve breaks large lumps, improving the moisture-retaining capacity of the powders. The required amounts of vegetable oil and water are poured out into the appropriate storage tanks.

Usually, egg paste is cooked first. For this – egg powder and water are delivered into a mixing tank. The mixture is stirred with a paddle-type mixer for about 2 – 10 minutes. Then it is heated to 60-65°C and held for 15-20 minutes, then pumped through a homogenizer into the main mixing tank to let it cool down to 20-30°C.

In the second tank, mustard and milk blend is prepared. A homogenizer evenly distributes the dry ingredients (milk powder, mustard powder, salt, sugar and soda) in the water and a colloid mill provides an additional grinding of the solid fractions (if necessary). The obtained mixture sits for 20 minutes at 80-85°C for a better dissolving and pasteurization of the components, and then it is allowed to cool down to 20-30°C. Cooled down mustard and milk paste is also pumped into the main mixing tank.

In the main mixing tank egg paste and mustard-milk paste are stirred for 5-10 minutes with a paddle-type agitator to obtain a homogeneous paste. The weight ratio of mustard-milk and egg pastes range from 1.5-2.0:1 for high-calorie mayonnaise and 2.2-2.8:1 for medium and low-calorie.

At the next stage vegetable oil is delivered into the main mixing tank. For an even distribution the oil is spread with a thin jet into the mixture of egg and mustard-milk pastes, that it is passed through a homogenizer.

Simultaneously with the introduction of the last portions of vegetable oil the previously prepared cold (15-16°C) vinegar-salt solution is introduced.

The sequence and speed of adding vegetable oil and vinegar-salt solution into the paste are extremely important, because the simultaneous or accelerated introduction of these components can result in emulsion getting lumpy.

At the final stage a coarse mayonnaise emulsion, from the mixer tank is  pumped through a homogenizer or a colloid mill. Homogenization is continued until a stable emulsion is obtained. As practice shows, this requires all mayonnaise emulsion to be passed through a homogenizer at least 2-3 times.

If the sample taken is entirely homogeneous, has no lumps, runs evenly and has a typical for mayonnaise viscosity, color, taste and smell – the product is considered to be ready and is subject to packaging.

Mayonnaise is stored at 3-7°C. Freezing or excessive heat of mayonnaise destroys its structure, besides a high temperature dramatically reduces the shelf life of this remarkable product.

Mustard Production Technology Using Colloid Mill

The history of mustard extends back a couple of millennia. Today it is one of the most popular spices used in the cuisines of many nations. In general, mustard is a mixture of mustard seeds, water, vinegar and various additives. The taste of mustard depends on additives and plant seeds (white, black, brown (saperda/Indian) or abyssinian mustard)

In Europe, the most popular is “Dijon” mustard with white wine and black mustard seeds, produced  since the XIV century. The most liquid mustard is “American” with white mustard seeds with a lot of sugar. “Bavarian” mustard is prepared with coarse-grained seeds and caramel syrup. The composition of “English” mustard is crushed seeds are mixed in apple juice or cider. In Italy, people like “Fruit” mustard prepared with whole or large pieces of apples, oranges, pears, and others, that are added into mustard powder, white wine, honey and spices. Finally, there is a hot, strong and familiar to us “Saperda mustard,” the preparation technology of which, as an example, will be discussed further.

The production of mustard consists of the following stages:

  • preparing saline solution;
  • preparing sugar syrup;
  • preparing marinade;
  • preparing mustard itself.

Components (mustard powder, peanut flour, salt and sugar) are pre-sieved through sieves with a mesh size of about 1mm. The sieves are equipped with magnets for trapping  large lumps of mustard powder and peanut flour – after which additional crushing is required. The additional crushing improves the “swelling” properties.

Sugar syrup is prepared from sugar and water in proportion nine to five, boiled for half an hour to prevent the development of mucosal bacteria.

The saline solution is prepared from salt and water in equal proportion one to one is brought to boil and then filtered.

A marinade is a day-old solution of water, vinegar and spices (pepper, cloves, bay leaf, cardamom, and others). If required by the recipe – garlic extract is cooked separately (within a period of five days).

When all the components are ready, the process of preparing mustard  follows in two stages: the first stage – mixing the main ingredients; the second stage – adding the recipe components.

During the mixing process : water, heated to 800С, delivered into a special mixing tank, continuously stirred, then mustard powder, and half of marinade are added. The mixture is continuously stirred for 25-30 minutes. Generally it is done using paddle-type mixers, but the most efficient mixing process is achieved by repeatedly running the mixture through a homogenizer or a colloid mill. The substance, prepared this way, is left for few hours to “sit” to launch the process of fermentation.

Into the obtained mustard paste, continuously stirred, are added: vegetable oil, saline solution, sugar syrup and the remaining part of marinade. The mixing process lasts for an hour, where mustard is passed through a homogenizer (colloid mill) to obtain a high-quality, uniform product.

As a general rule, the mustard production line is equipped according to the requirements of the Customer. However, there is a “basic” set of equipment installed. It includes:

  1. A vibro screen for sieving mustard powder. The mesh size of the screen does not exceed 1.5mm, the optimal oscillation amplitude is about 10mm, and the oscillation frequency is about 500-600 oscillations per minute.
  2. Stainless steel tanks for preparing saline solution, sugar syrup and marinade  are equipped with heaters for boiling. Tanks for syrup and saline solution are equipped with low RPM mixers.
  3. Filters between the solution tanks and homogenizer that delivers a mixture into the mustard preparing machine. These filters serve to remove foreign and large size particles.
  4. The mustard preparing machine. Generally, it is a vertical container with a water-steam heating circuit, equipped with a blade- or rake-type agitator.
  5. Crusher-homogenizer is also an integral part of the production line. Usually, it is a rotary homogenizer or colloid mill (as an example, produced by GlobeCore). The main purpose of the homogenizer (colloid mill) is to crush mustard mass and bring it into a fine, homogeneous state. At the same time acts as a transfer pump.

Packaged mustard is stored in dark, dry rooms at a temperature not higher than +100С. Shelf life varies from 45 days in the hot season, and until 90 days in the cold.