In the production of pastry, the most promising direction is implementation of modern technology and equipment and improvement of the product range by using new flavors, alternative raw materials and new packaging materials.
The main component of pastry, which significantly defines the quality of the dough is flour. Most of such products require flour with medium or weak extensible gluten in the amount of at least 28%.
The grade of flour milling also plays an important role, since the rate of dough formation depends on particle size. The larger the particles, the slower the swelling and formation of gluten, the dough remains elastic.
If the size of the particles is smaller, and the mean surface is larger, the ability of the flour to absorb water grows sharply, the dough becomes viscous and elastic.
The dispersion of fat also influences the product. In dispersed emulsion, which is added to the dough, the droplets of fat are very small. This forms a good structure of the product. If the fat coagulates into larger droplets, it does not envelop flour particles, cannot stay within the product and precipitates in storage. This process is characteristic of, for instance, vegetable oil. Solid fat with high melting point is viscous and distributes poorly between flow particles.
In the process of pastry production, it is very important that all components, especially fat, are evenly distributed throughout the dough. Such production involves mutually insoluble products (milk, water and fat). Dosage of the mix with one portioning device is only possible if the material is a stable emulsion without separation.
To obtain such an emulsion from two insoluble liquids, the system requires the third component, an emulsifier, which reduces the interfacial tension on the phase boundary and envelops the particles with a thin film to prevent coagulation.
The stability of emulsion depends on the type and concentration of emulsion, as well as fat dispersion: the higher the dispersion, the higher the stability of the emulsion, all other factors being equal.
A common choice for emulsifier are edible phosphatide concentrates and surfactants.
Surfactants can adjust flour properties, weaken or strengthen gluten and intensify the technology process.
Using emulsion facilitates even distribution of the dispersed fat in the dough and creates favorable conditions to make the most elastic dough for easy molding. Biscuits made with an emulsion is easy to form, absorbs moisture well, is more porous and brittle.
The process of dough preparation can be divided into two stages: obtaining the emulsion and making the dough with the emulsion. Emulsion may be made using a CLM colloid mill. The finished emulsion is pumped into an intermediary tank, equipped with a mechanical agitator and a heat exchange jacket. The time of emulsion preparation depends on the recipe and varies from 10 to 20 minutes.
To improve emulsion stability and to slow the process of staling of the product, it is recommended to add 0.5% fat. The addition of fat into the dough may be reduced by 1.5%.