Medicine in liquid form released over the counter are obtained by mixing or dissolving the active ingredients in various solvents: ethanol, water, oils, etc. There is also an alternative method of manufacturing medicine in liquid form – extracting active ingredients from plant products.
The basic requirement for such medicine is dispersed and homogeneous distribution of the active substance in a liquid dispersion medium
The classification of...
Paint is a binder or a paste, dispersed in a dispersed medium. The production of paints and varnishes includes the following stages:
1. raw material purchasing;
2. raw material processing;
(b) dispersion – blending of particles to the desired consistency of the product;
(c) letdown stage; and
The most complex and energy consuming stage of paint production is the blending of components and pigment dispersion in film forming agents and their solvents.
Thanks to the combination of developments in acoustics, hydrodynamics and chemical kinetics, a new promising device is entering the market: the cavitation reactors, employed for processing of suspensions, emulsions and for intensification of chemical processes in solutions. These devices are can be used either separately (in laboratory test-benches) or in industrial mixing processes. In today’s market, two main types of cavitation reactors are available: the ultrasonic cavitation reactors and the...
Catalysts are special substances that speed up chemical reactions while remaining unchanged themselves. Unlike other reagents, catalysts remain unchanged when the process is finished. The reaction proceeds more slowly or does not proceed at all without catalysts. The essence of catalytic reactions can be summarized as follows: First, the catalyst reacts with original substance. An intermediate compound undergoes changes and then divides into a product and a catalyst. This process...
Nowadays, we can’t even imagine our lives without toothpaste. In general, they consist of abrasives, binding components, surfactants, aromatics, and antiseptics. Often, such chemical elements known as ‘propyl p-hydroxybenzoate‘ are used as an antiseptic. Additionally, pastes may contain various medical and preventive additives such as chlorophyllin sodium, provitamins and vitamins, herbal infusions, salts, microcomponents, and enzymes.
The following details the toothpaste production process. At the first stage, sodium carboxymethylcellulose solution is...
What is a “bitumen emulsion”?
An emulsion a fine dispersion of minute droplets of one liquid in another in which it is not soluble or miscible. In the case of a bitumen emulsion bitumen droplets are distributed in the water. The latter contains a surfactant – an emulsifier for stabilizing the emulsion.
Bitumen emulsion properties
The most important property of bitumen emulsion is the rate of decay on the surface of the mineral...